乌兰巴托BRT(部分走廊)概念设计

Far East Mobility has worked on the Ulaaanbaatar BRT planning and design throughout 2016 and up to May 2017, as a partial BRT conceptual design. Some updates on the project are available at the following articles: Ulaanbaatar BRT plans and designs taking shape (November 2016) and Smart cards provide accurate, comprehensive data in Ulaanbaatar (May 2016). This work was a follow-up to earlier BRT planning carried out by Karl Fjellstrom, Wenxuan Ma, Xiaomei Duan, Derek Trusler and others in Ulaanbaatar in 2011. Far East Mobility was also awarded a contract in 2018 to provide planning and technical input during the engineering design stage, but the postponement and what now seems apparent cancellation of the engineering design stage meant that this input never eventuated.

Between the earlier work in 2011 and the start of Far East Mobility's input in February 2016 there had been no progress made on the BRT planning, though major progress was made in supporting areas such as the establishment of a smart card system, formalization and organization of bus routes, implementation of improved bus stops, remuneration of operators on a time rather than passenger basis, bus fleet expansion, capacity building of the urban transport department, implementation of a traffic control centre, and other reforms. In addition, as part of a related study from February to April 2016, BRT Planning International and other consultants prepared a preliminary BRT business plan, though this was superseded by major changes to the BRT corridor selection in July 2016. In particular, after a change of government in June 2016 it was decided that Peace Avenue no longer needed to be considered off-limits for non-technical reasons. Far East Mobility revised the BRT plans to take this change into account, and the BRT phase 1 BRT corridor was planned along Peace Avenue and Namyan Ju.

During the years from the earlier BRT planning work in 2011, traffic conditions deteriorated greatly in Ulaanbaatar.

During the years from the earlier BRT planning work in 2011, traffic conditions deteriorated greatly in Ulaanbaatar, worsened by motor vehicle fleet growth combined with highly inefficient intersections throughout the central area, and unreliable and slow public transport service. Bus speeds throughout the central area average less than 10km/hr from 8AM to 8PM on an average weekday. There have been no significant pedestrian or bicycle facility improvements since 2011. Parking management is somewhat less chaotic than in 2011, but is not used effectively to manage traffic demand or to raise much-needed revenues. In short, while in 2011 the city officials were only lukewarm about the possibility of BRT, by 2016 conditions had worsened so much that officials were very keen to act to improve the situation. Political will is strong, and the potential time saving and other benefits from a well-designed BRT in Ulaanbaatar are very large.

A BRT Concept Design or BRT Preliminary Design study was never completed after the initial very limited concept design study in 2011.

In addition to the strong consensus on the need to drastically improve the public transport system, the city now has excellent demand and speed data availability from the smart card system. Smart card usage became mandatory in Ulaanbaatar on 1 April 2017, further enhancing what was already an excellent data source for BRT planning.

Despite this seemingly positive overall situation, however, a BRT Concept Design or BRT Preliminary Design study was never completed after the initial very limited concept design study in 2011, meaning that by 2017 the project had no firm foundation and was not yet sufficiently defined for the engineering design to start. Key decisions on corridors, vehicles and operations had not yet been finalized. There had been multiple sporadic inputs by consultant teams working on various aspects related to BRT, but no overall BRT Concept Design or BRT Preliminary Design. A Project Implementation Unit was formed in 2017, but was unfortunately unable to use the long periods of inactivity during bid preparation and other 'down times' to proceed with much-needed additional planning and design work.

根据2016-2017年制定的部分概念设计,由远东BRT提出的乌兰巴托BRT走廊和车站。

Far East Mobility's preliminary BRT design work during 2016-2017 included corridor selection, demand analysis, bus speed analysis, intersections analysis and improvements, changes to traffic circulation, BRT stations (types, locations, access, dimensions, configuration, and access, though not architecture), and operational approach (though not operational plan). This work is guiding the ongoing BRT implementation in Ulaanbaatar, though much remains to be done to guide the engineering design and to complete the BRT concept design stage. Follow-up work is needed on stations, operations, architecture, demand modeling, modal integration, station access planning, and other areas.

The risk is that too many critical aspects for the project success will be left up to the engineering design team who may not have the required experience in BRT planning to ensure a successful project.

Some of the key intersections and corridor segments have not yet been defined, the multiple partial inputs in several areas by different consulting teams has not yet been packaged as a holistic BRT concept design, and work has not yet been carried out to prepare a BRT demand or operational model for Peace Avenue or the BRT station architecture, which is a critical issue in the weather conditions of Ulaanbaatar. Far East Mobility developed proposals for most key intersections and for the central area traffic network in early 2017 with input by two experts, and developed preliminary operational and station concepts, but this amounts to only a partial BRT concept design. Far East Mobility provided concepts and some examples for pedestrian and bicycle facility integration and for station area development planning, but the city needs to further develop these concepts, and integrate the BRT planning with other ongoing urban planning projects and policies. It would be highly advantageous for the City to at least carry out a complete BRT Concept Design study to address gaps in the planning and to bring together the disparate inputs by different consultant teams over the last couple of years. If this is not done prior to or in parallel with the early engineering design, the risk is that too many critical aspects for the project success will be left up to the engineering design team who may not have the required experience in BRT planning to ensure a successful project. The best combination is probably for the engineering design to be led by a local team, but with a smaller - and independent - international expert team addressing gaps in the planning and providing technical input and supervision through the entire project, up to the early phases of operation.

除了要有大力改善公共交通系统的强烈共识外,地方机构还需要有更大的落实改革的能力,而智能卡系统对城市数据的可用性非常高。在2017年4月1日,乌兰巴托智能卡的使用得到强制落实,进一步巩固了BRT规划的优秀数据来源。

2016年11月和2017年4月,在乌兰巴托香格里拉大酒店举行了重大项目介绍会,政府和亚行都积极接受了建议,但仍有许多工作要做。2017年4月的会议后,新闻界公布了BRT项目,得到了高层官员的认可。另一个的顾问团队正在制定关于2017年BRT车队规格和采购的建议。已经建立了一个项目实施单位,目前正在为即将进行的BRT规划/监督和BRT走廊工程设计招标。

还将需要额外的投入,以制定完整的BRT概念设计,包括交通分析,BRT走廊(特别是中部地区)和所有关键交叉口设计,运营计划和总线路线变化,BRT站架构和渲染,模态一体化,车站区域发展规划等方面。

马文轩和Karl Fjellstrom在2016 至 2017年间制定的BRT概念规划包括改变道路网络的流通方案,以减少交叉口相位的数量,和改善BRT走廊交通条件。然而,交叉口的改善只能作为广泛的道路网络修复的一部分来完成,以确保在交叉口处有防止左转活动的替代方案可用,并且优先与BRT一起完成。需然这个城市在2017年8月的一些主要交叉路口进行了两相位测试,但没有更广泛的线网调整。这是毫无作用的,和平大道的改善从2017年9月1日开始回落。而更好的做法是与BRT系统一起实施交叉点相位改善和相关网络调整。


在2011年早期BRT规划工作的这几年中,乌兰巴托的交通状况急剧恶化。