公共交通引导城市发展,停车和慢行交通

分区布局规划、人行区域、街道网络、密度、土地混合使用、停车、后退区和城市设计

远东BRT开展的TOD工作得到洛克菲勒兄弟基金的合约支持,同时与BRT国际规划委员会合作进行。

下列是我们关于TOD在吉安的系列文章(吉安是江西省的一个中小型城市):

第一部分-TOD在中国:吉安的机遇和挑战 (2017.8)
第二部分-吉安TOD:站点周边土地分区、混合开发及密度最佳案例 (2017.9)
第三部分-停车改善、后退区、人行区域和街道网络 (2017.10)

TOD在中国

公共交通引导城市发展(TOD)在中国的应用是全世界深切关注的问题。全球气候变暖的问题,极其关键地取决于未来几十年,中国在能源和交通运输方面所做的决策。然而毫无疑问,中国的能源行业严重依赖碳密集型煤炭,这仍然是对全球气候的最大威胁,而交通运输业则紧跟其后的第二威胁。近年来,中国在减少对燃煤电厂的依赖,以可再生能源和低碳密集型能源替代一般能源等方面取得了令人印象深刻的长足进展,但是在交通运输方面,却前景堪忧。中国曾经拥有大量的自行车和绿树成荫的街道,然而在2016年1月汽车拥有量达到1.72亿辆,是目前世界上最大的用车市场。这比2007年的中国注册汽车数量多出三倍。只有三分之一的家庭拥有汽车,却有3.1亿名司机取得驾驶执照,这说明汽车拥有量还有很大的增长空间。虽然中国的交通运输业仅占二氧化碳排放总量的10%左右,但预计交通运输行业的排放量将每年上涨3.5%。

与此同时,公交优先的运输方式没有跟上。包括吉安在内的许多城市,一直把重点放在为公交车配置电动公交车,而不是提高公交车频次和服务水平上,这都反映在交通方式分担的停滞或下降上。(在吉安,公交配车几乎全部转为电动公交车,整个城市公交配车数量自2012年以来没有明显增加。)在短期内,像吉安这样的小城市,最初人们会依靠电动自行车,然后再转向依靠汽车。

这种机动化率的增长很大程度上是由过时的规划和建筑条例造成的。举个例子,中国大部分的规划和分区规划要求住宅楼宇的开发商为每户提供0.5到1个停车位。这意味着中国正在建设旨在为每户解决0.5到1辆汽车的城市。这不是唯一与鼓励人们骑自行车出行和步行出行背道而驰的元素。中国大部分规划和土地分区规划都遵循教科书中现代化主义道路的原则,不仅相互分离有害的土地使用,还通过分区和设立建筑后退区来分离建筑物与周围的街道。虽然分离有害工业用地仍然是很好的实践,但是许多土地用途被认为是可以相互兼容的,例如住宅和办公室,办公室和零售以及零售和住宅。将这些功能的土地进行分区,往往会增加人们日常生活中不必要的出行,在经济发展到一定程度的时候,这总是会引起富人和中产阶级购买私家车的欲望。

即使可以混合使用的土地都被严格划分,这样的分区布局规划尽管在几乎所有的欧洲和越来越多的美国城市被认为是过时的,但仍然是中国当前的主要布局模式。然而,由于中国正在经历人类历史上最大规模的住房建设热潮,这些建筑条例的过时会造成严重且深远的影响。

上图是从吉安市政府大楼所拍的行政新区,说明了上述提到的许多问题,包括拥有大型后退区的封闭式单一发展用地,不连续街道,建筑物和街道之间的停车场(有着优良景观的土地优先权给了汽车用户),大型阻碍行人和自行车通行的障碍带,没有任何公交车优先措施,以及大体上对交通、步行和自行车没有吸引力的环境。

TOD和BRT

尽管TOD是城市轨道交通项目的组成部分,并且作为能最大限度发挥大型投资效益的极好方式,已经得到广泛的认可,但在BRT领域的TOD模式还远远不够成熟,或者说还不成体系。BRT项目一般没有任何TOD规划。尽管ITDP在广州、兰州和宜昌开展TOD规划,能源基金会也在济南、重庆、和昆明开展TOD规划,前者的城市太注重设计,而后者的城市甚至BRT系统也没有成功。虽然在广州,兰州和宜昌取得了一些积极的成果,但一般是在特别选定的站点区域。其中的一些成果伴随着区级城中村改造工程,例如棠下BRT站点地区的改善,却没有与BRT站点或者走廊有任何直接关系。

远东BRT的TOD工作宗旨是在早期工作经验的基础上,以创建“示范式”最佳案例为目标,从而给其他城市提供学习模板。确保高品质的进出站方式和站点区域开发改进被纳入高质量BRT走廊规划中,这需要技术、政策、设计和规划投入,然而这些投入通常超出了特定项目的定义范围,因为这项工作涉及到TOD、慢行交通、城市设计、停车、交通管理和其他交通要素。

记录城市发展的最佳实践案例

远东BRT还记录了TOD和NMT措施的最佳案例和影响。

BRT站区发展的基本概念,包括BRT车站周边的特殊区域(来源:李扬)。

以下是TOD和城市发展最佳实践案例的研究记录,包括有以下内容:

绿地/棕色地带 ---- OCT,深圳
传输节点 ---- 石牌桥,广州
公共交通 ---- 广州BRT
水道 ---- 东濠涌绿道
老城区重建 ---- 荔枝湾涌,广州
城中村重建 ---- 棠下村,广州
住宅小区重建 ---- 六运小区,广州。

慢行交通和完整的街道

“完整的街道是每个人的街道,它的设计和营运是为了使所有使用者,包括行人,自行车,驾驶者及所有不同年龄和能力的乘客安全进出”(非盈利组织Smart Growth America给出的定义)。 远东BRT致力于道路设计和规划,包括完整的街道和高质量的步行以及自行车设施和政策,这些通常也是BRT项目的组成部分。

TOD在吉安

近期在吉安的工作记录了TOD与正在规划和设计的BRT走廊一起实施的挑战和机遇,详细内容请参考文章第一部分,文章第二部分着眼于密度、土地混合使用和车站周边分区布局规划,文章第三部分则侧重于后退区、行人设施和停车。

其他城市

远东BRT专家早期的TOD工作包括对广州,兰州和宜昌BRT走廊的TOD规划以及密集投入在万象,新山,天津等城市规划的BRT系统规划。最近,我们的TOD工作投入集中在吉安(作为BRT规划的一部分),乌兰巴托(作为BRT规划的一部分),贵阳(也作为正在进行的BRT规划的一部分)以及正在进行的TOD最佳实践资料整理归档。

尽管TOD的应用需要适应各个城市的不同环境,远东BRT支持由ITDP召集的专家小组制定的TOD原则,这已经在TOD标准(第3版)中发表。

News & links

STEC allots B7.79bn for Mor Chit project
Value capture - US$250 million (7.79 billion baht) paid by developer for a site next to Mo Chit Skytrain station owned by the Skytrain operator.
Bangkok Post, 12.04.2019

Barcelona’s superblocks are a new model for “post-car” urban living
Plans to drastically reduce the motor vehicle network in Barcelona.
Vox, 11.04.2019

Welcome to Oslo! NO PARKING.
More and more European cities are effectively banning automobiles from their city centers — and it seems to be working out just fine for local businesses. The cities are "discovering that restoring these historic spaces to their pre-automobile states is as good for tourism, local business, and overall civic contentedness as it is for air quality and a shrinking carbon footprint."
NRDC, 01.02.2019

Cities on the World Stage: A ‘superblock’ design that inspires more like it
Superblocks to the rescue? "The Superblock has the potential to address a number of urban priorities, including air quality, noise pollution, public health and social isolation. Barcelona’s leadership and ambition with the Superblock is refreshing, and others around the world are taking notice."
opencanada.org, 18.10.2018

Robert Venturi: the bad-taste architect who took a sledgehammer to modernism
Robert Venturi, author of one of the 20th Century's best books on architecture, 'Learning from Las Vegas', has died. The Guardian: "Venturi was one of the most influential figures in 20th-century architecture, taking an erudite sledgehammer to the dogmas of modernism and arguing for a world that embraced history, diversity and humour."
The Guardian, 20.09.2018

A Once-Maligned Concrete Megastructure in Seoul is Revitalized—Sans Gentrification
A focus on infill and re-use is example for some of the largely abandoned areas in cities like Ji'an, China. "Now, thanks to the Remaking Sewoon Project, which Seoul mayor Park Won-soon spearheaded in 2015, Sewoon Sangga is poised as an adaptive- reuse success story in the city’s post–2008 recession efforts to improve walkability, connect communities, and nurture creative growth."
Metropolis, 08.08.2018

Apartment buildings are illegal to build in 73.5% of San Francisco
"Apartment building" is defined to be a building with 3 or more homes. It is illegal to build a building with more than 5 homes in 87% of San Francisco. Many apartment buildings already exist in the red and orange areas but would be illegal to build today.
vadimg (data SF Gov, code Github), 19.07.2018

发改委:中小城市不宜过高预估高铁带动作用 盲目造城
China's top national economic planner has issued guidelines specifying that land around high speed rail stations earmarked for development should not on average exceed 50 hectares, although for a small number of stations, that figure goes to up to 100 ha. The NDRC said that new high-speed railway lines should not lead to the partitioning of cities; stations should be located within, or as near as possible to, central urban areas for convenience of passengers; and buildings should not be ostentatious, grandiose projects. Unfortunately, the horse has bolted and these guidelines probably should have been provided a decade ago.
财新网, 09.05.2018

The Real Reason Your Local Mall is Failing
"And we should also recognize where our wealth really comes from. It comes from our downtown and our core neighborhoods (those within walking distance of the downtown). It certainly doesn't come from people driving through those places. It doesn't come from people commuting in. It doesn't come from tourists or developers or the potential of land development out on the edge."
Strong Towns, 23.04.2018

The Strange Beauty Of Brutalist Architecture, Mid-Demolition
The average age of a building being demolished in the 1950s was 111 years [...] By the early 2000s, the age was down to 60 years. That number seems to still be dropping: another study pegged the age of some demolished buildings at less than 50 years.
co.design, 11.04.2018

California's Love of Cars Is Fueling Its Housing Crisis
Adding an above-ground parking spot costs $27,000, just for construction, while an underground space runs around $35,000, according to Donald Shoup in 2014.
Bloomberg, 06.03.2018

Highrise car parks to be banned in drive to improve city streetscapes
Underground car parking would be the only type allowed in most city apartment and office developments, under new rules being considered by Melbourne City Council. Many additional streetscape-improving policies are being planned.
The Age, 15.02.2018

These maps reveal the truth about population density across Europe
Simply dividing the number of people by the land area of a country is not always the best way to understand population density.
CityMetric, 25.01.2018

Build it and they will come? Why Britain's 1960s cycling revolution flopped
“If the reasons for Stevenage’s failure to encourage cycling were that it was too easy to drive, then no amount of investment in marketing the town’s cycling facilities would have changed travel behaviour.”
The Guardian, 19.09.2017